Since starting at New Vector in December 2019, I have been working mostly on Dendrite, a Matrix homeserver written in Go. Part of this is to hopefully produce a Matrix homeserver implementation that can stand as a fully feature-complete alternative to Synapse. However, we’ve also been using Dendrite as a testbed for an entirely new model of Matrix federation which is fully peer-to-peer.
Currently, users register their accounts on a homeserver which may be owned and operated by someone else. The goal is to shift this model around so that instead users will interact with the Matrix network by running their own single-user homeservers right on the devices that they are using.
This has a number of potential benefits. It makes it possible to use Matrix in situations where normal Internet connectivity may not be available or reliable. It makes it possible for users to own their own data, rather than entrusting it to a homeserver. It makes it simpler for people to join Matrix without having to worry about homeservers, data retention etc.
This is by no means a final representation of what peer-to-peer Matrix will look like, but rather it is one of two initial experiments into using libp2p as a carrier for Matrix federation traffic. (The other was discussed at FOSDEM 2020, using the libp2p-go bindings and multicast DNS for discovery on the local network.)
On the one hand, it was relatively painless building the libp2p demos as many of the needed components for HTTP-over-libp2p were already available. However, there are still a number of issues with this approach. Inside the browser sandbox, we are limited to only being able to communicate using WebSockets, WebRTC and similar, hence why all traffic in the P2P demo is in reality proxied through the rendezvous server in a star topology. Peer-to-peer in spirit, perhaps, but not truly.
The problem with both of these approaches is that neither of them truly have the ability to handle overlay routing - this is a rather big gap in libp2p at present. libp2p will work fine in scenarios where you can guarantee that your participating nodes will be able to reach each other directly using the underlying network, but things quickly fall apart when you cannot guarantee this being the case (e.g. in ad-hoc settings). Since federation within a Matrix room is effectively full-mesh, you need to be able to exchange data with all servers that are participating in a given room directly.
So the next likely iteration is to consider whether or not Yggdrasil will help us. Yggdrasil is a decentralised routing scheme which aims to guarantee end-to-end network connectivity between all network nodes by routing traffic on behalf of users who cannot communicate directly. It uses a global spanning tree as a locator mechanism and a distributed hash table (DHT) to facilitate two nodes finding each other. Yggdrasil is much more bare-bones than libp2p in many ways - there’s no pre-packaged HTTP handlers, for example. Instead you just get a socket-like structure and Yggdrasil will try to get packets from A to B.
However, we gain full overlay routing and the ability to connect nodes in pretty much any network topology (including over the internet, over local area networks and even directly using wireless) and, moreover, we should be able to do so at scale. Some work will need to be done to create the HTTP boilerplate however, although I have done some preliminary work on HTTP/2 multiplexing over Yggdrasil which may fit this use-case nicely. We also have a number of other projects in the pipeline to explore, including DAT, although exploration remains surface-deep at this point.
It’s worth noting though that, even though Yggdrasil might help to solve the overlay routing problem, it is far from a perfect solution either. I have been one of two maintainers on the Yggdrasil Network project for over two years now and, although many of the design elements are sound, there are still weaknesses in the protocol design that need to be addressed in order for it to be truly resilient. Currently, to avoid needing full routing tables, Yggdrasil assigns “coordinates” to a node relative to a root node on the network, which is chosen based on the attributes of the cryptographic keys. Routing is then performed by sending traffic to a peer that takes your traffic closer to the destination coordinates. However, it’s possible for a root node to go offline or to be replaced at pretty much any time, causing all other nodes on the network to reassign their coordinates and perhaps being briefly unreachable to each other while this happens. It’s also entirely possible that a bad actor on the network can selectively and maliciously drop traffic whilst transiting for other nodes, and we don’t currently have a means for avoiding this.
One area of exploration which may help to solve these problems is to examine whether source routing between two communicating nodes can increase resilience. Source routing is where the path that the traffic will follow is calculated by the sender up front, rather than relying on each node on the path to make a routing decision. This means that the sender can specifically choose a different route if someone on the path decides to start dropping traffic. Source routing would also be far less reliant on the node’s coordinates as the path would be calculated based on the switch ports on the path, therefore network topology changes further up the spanning tree (such as those that would result in changes in coordinates) would not result in a loss of connectivity since the path would otherwise not change. There is a balance to be struck here though in that source routing searches may end up being more expensive up front and it may be a lot harder to respond to network conditions on the path, e.g. by trying to route around network congestion.
In addition to connectivity, there are other Matrix-centric problems to be solved. In a world where each device is potentially running its own homeserver, we will need a new approach for handling user identities. A draft proposal exists today in the form of MSC1228 which aims to replace traditional Matrix user accounts with portable identities which are cryptographically generated. Not covered yet by the MSC is how we will maintain a synchronised state between multiple devices owned by the same user, since the identity will effectively need to be “portable” before that can be achieved. It should, however, open up pathways for Matrix identities and accounts to be portable in the sense that you would be able to move between or operate across multiple servers without interruption - like changing your user ID.
It’s also possible that a user’s device will be unreachable at pretty much any time, either because it has no network connectivity, it has ran out of power or has even just been switched off by the owner. Therefore, we will also be exploring whether a hybrid approach involving both static and peer-to-peer/single-user homeservers can provide a better experience, especially in situations where user devices are offline or unreachable. This will likely involve a form of federated backfilling where the various devices owned by a specific user can retrieve history from each other to provide a more unified experience across devices.
P2P Matrix is still very much on the drawing board at this stage - this is just a taste of some of the issues still to be worked out and I expect that we will iterate on many designs before we arrive at a final destination. The P2P Matrix project has definitely garnered a lot of interest within recent months so watch this space - I’ll be writing more as we make progress.